The Special Economic Zone (SEZ) policy study report of India was submitted to Union Commerce and Industry and Civil Aviation Minister Suresh Prabhu. To prepare this policy study report , the committee was constituted under the chairmanship of Baba Kalyani, chairman of the country’s famous industrialist Bharat Forge Limited. This committee was asked to assess the SEZ policy and to make it consistent with the standards of World Trade Organization (WTO) .
Apart from  this, the committee was also given the responsibility of suggesting measures to ensure the maximum use of SEZ’s landless land and suggest  necessary changes in the SEZ policy on the basis of international experience. In addition to this, the responsibility of suggesting the merger of SEZ policy with other government schemes likeCoastal Economic Zone,  Delhi-Mumbai Economic Corridor , National Industrial Manufacturing Zone and Textile Parks was also assigned to this committee. .
This report says that if India is to be transformed into an economy of 5 trillion dollars by 2025 then in the manufacturing sector there will be a need to make basic changes in the competent capacity as well as in the existing environment related to the services. At the same time, the successes in the field of information technology and related services have to be ensured in other services sectors / sectors such as health services , financial services ,  legal ,  repair and design services.  
In addition, it has been said in the report that there is a need to assess existing policy frameworks to speed up the pace of development in the manufacturing sector. At the same time, it is also necessary to make relevant policy in accordance with the relevant rules and regulations of the WTO .

Why in the discussion ?

In Berlin, UNESCO’s 2019 Global Education Monitoring Report, Migration, Displacement and Education was released. According to this report released by UNESCO, the number of refugees and the number of refugees aged under school has increased by 26% since 2000 in the whole world.

Global scenario

  • This report promotes the rights of immigrants and refugees to gain the benefit of quality education (a right that works in the interest of the learner and the community in which they live), prominently highlight the achievements and errors of the countries in the field.
  • The right to education for these children is challenged in the courtyard of the classes and schools every day, and some countries’ governments are denied denial of this right.
  • Despite this, 8 of the top 10 countries providing shelter to refugees have increased the rate of inclusion of refugee children in the national education system. These countries, which provide refuge to the refugees, include low income countries like Chad, Ethiopia and Uganda. Canada and Ireland are at the forefront of implementing inclusive education policies for immigrants.

What does the report say about refugees ?

  • There are more than half the number of displaced people in the whole world upto the age of 18, but there are many countries that keep these refugees out of their national education system.
  • If countries like Australia, Hungary, Indonesia, Malaysia and Mexico have access to education of refugee children, then it is limited.
  • Rohingyas refugees in Bangladesh, Burundian refugees in the United Republic of Tanzania, Karen refugees in Thailand and many Afghan refugees in Pakistan are separate, unincorporated, community only Based or private schools, some of them are not even certified. For example 
  1. Kenya allows refugees to take advantage of their national academic curriculum but they are unable to fully incorporate them because these refugees live in camps where they are unable to talk to their Kenyan counterparts.

  3. Lebanon and Jordan are both countries where the number of refugees per person is highest, but they lack resources to create more schools for refugees. Therefore, these countries have arranged schools in the morning and evening shift for the citizens and refugees of their country, which has limited interaction between these two groups.
  • This report accepts important investments made in order to provide education together to refugees and citizens by countries such as Rwanda and Islamic Republic of Iran. Turkey, like 7 countries in Eastern Africa, is committed to include all refugees in the national education system by 2020. Uganda has already completed this promise.
  • Nearly 89% of refugees live in lower and middle income countries but there is a shortage of funds to meet the needs of refugees in these countries. To ensure the education of refugee children and long-term support to debt donor countries, there is a need to double their expenditure.

Immigrants (Immigrants) What does the report about ?

  • Between 2005 and 2017, the number of immigrant backgrounds increased from 15% to 18% in high income countries. Now their number is 36 million, which is equal to the number of students going to school throughout Europe. If these numbers increase in this rate, then by 2030 this increase can be up to 22%.
  • In the year 2017, the immigrant students in the European Union quit school more than the local students. In the year 2015, the number of first-generation immigrant students in countries involved in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) was 32% less compared to local students in the basic skills of reading, mathematics and science.
  • In Canada, where the percentage of immigrants is the highest among the seven most prosperous countries, it ensures that children learn about immigration from the second grade and that it has included multiculturalism in their constitution.
  • Ireland, where the number of first-generation immigrants is highest in the European Union, has succeeded in financing inter-cultural academic tactics despite serious financial crises.

In the scenario of India

  • According to the report, in India in year 2013, 10.7 million children of 6 to 14 years lived in rural households. These are such families who migrate according to the weather. In these families 28% of the young age of 15 to 19 years of age were either illiterate or did not even complete their primary education.
  • In seven cities, 80% of the total number of seasonal migrant children was such that the workplace had no education system and 40% were those who had to work in place of education, and these children had experience of abuse and exploitation. Did too
  • According to the report, the number of short-term migrants in the construction sector is very high. A survey conducted on 3,000 brick kiln workers in Punjab State in 2015-16 found that 60% of the number of workers in these laborers were of the intermediate migrants. Between 65% and 80% of all children of 5 to 14 years of age living in Bhattas were children who worked for 7-9 hours per day. Approximately 77% furnace workers reported about the lack of access to their children’s primary education.
  • According to the report, the rate of interregion migration has doubled between 2001 and 2011. Approximately 9 million people migrated between states from 2011 to 2016.
  • It also warns of negative impact on the education of children whose parents left them and went to work.
  • However, some efforts made by India in this order have also been appreciated in the report. Which are as follows:
  • Under the Right to Education Act 2009, the entry of migrant children into local bodies has been made compulsory.
  • Guidelines were issued at the national level, to facilitate the penetration of children, to provide support for mobil education and the availability of volunteers, hostels for seasonal migrants, and to coordinate between districts and states. Allows
  • Some states have also made significant efforts for the education of migrant children. However, these efforts are focused on keeping the children in community homes rather than facing the challenges faced by those migrant people who are already active.
  • This report also shows the failure that started at the brick kiln sites in Rajasthan in 2010-11 for children who had left school.
  • Teachers on these sites have cited culture, language, lifestyle, cleaning and clothing as the major obstacles among the community working on them and the furnace. Teachers and students absenteeism are also widely seen.
  • According to the report, there has been an increase in the number of slums and informal settlements in India where the school is rare.
  • Suggestions given in report

    • Right to education for immigrants and displaced people should be protected.
    • Immigrants and refugees should be included in the National Education System.
    • The education requirements of immigrants and refugees should be understood and planned to fulfill them.
    • To eliminate prejudice, immigrations and displacement in education should be properly included.
    • Prepare teachers for immigrants and refugees to end discrimination and troubles.
    • The power of migrants and displaced people should be utilized.
    • Humanitarian and developmental assistance should support the requirements of immigrants and displaced people.


    • Both China and India are countries where a large population migration internally and the report shows that seasonal migration has a significant impact on education.
    • Therefore, UNESCO’s report urges policy makers to strengthen public education for rural expatriate children living in huts.
    • Both migration and displacement are global challenges, which are generally encouraging 17 sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and especially SDG 4, meaning ‘specially inclusive and equitable quality education and promoting lifelong learning opportunities for all. have to give.

What is SEZ (Special Economic Zone) ?

Special Economic Zones or SEZs are specifically defined as those geographical areas , from which trade, economic activities , production and other business activities are operated. These areas are developed to encourage business activities by keeping in mind special economic rules and regulations within the country’s borders. India is one of the top countries which have established such geographical units in particular topromote industry and business activities . India is the first Asian country to set up a special area in Kandla in1965 to increase exports It was named Export Processing Zone (EPZ ).


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